This project grew out of attempts to investigate quantification and scope in Passamaquoddy-Maliseet. An early publication of this investigation is Bruening 2001, below; Bruening to appear and Bruening 2008 describe the use of some of the materials, and the results. The project is funded by the National Science Foundation (grant number BCS-0518308). The toys are PLAYMOBIL, used by courtesy of PLAYMOBIL. PLAYMOBIL is a registered trademark of Germany's largest toy manufacturer, geobra Brandstätter GmbH & Co. KG.

The materials here have now been used to investigate scope and quantification in Passamaquoddy-Maliseet (Algonquian), Mi'kmaq (Algonquian), English (Indo-European), and Albanian (Indo-European). In English, they have been used in an experimental setting with a large number of subjects.


The director of the project is Benjamin Bruening, who is solely responsible for the content of this website. Yaping Tsai helped to prepare the materials and to do fieldwork as a research assistant. Gina Cook and Masahiro Yamada also worked on the project as graduate assistants.


Bruening, Benjamin (to appear). Algonquian Languages Have A-Movement and A-Agreement. Linguistic Inquiry 40: 427--445.

Bruening, Benjamin (2008). Quantification in Passamaquoddy. In Lisa Matthewson (Ed.), Quantification: A Cross-Linguistic Perspective. Emerald: 67--103.

Bruening, Benjamin (2001). Syntax at the Edge: Cross-Clausal Phenomena and the Syntax of Passamaquoddy. Ph.D. dissertation, MIT. Distributed by MIT Working Papers in Linguistics.