ARTH440: Art and Warfare in Latin America





Professor:                 Monica Dominguez



Seminar Hours:         W 3:30-6:30 pm


Seminar Location:     MDH 202


Office Hours:            R 3:30-5 pm by



Office Location:        118A Old College




| Seminar Description | Grading | Calendar | Readings | Bibliography | Additional Resources |




Seminar Description


This seminar focuses on battles, revolts, warriors, and heroes as represented in the arts of Latin America from pre-Hispanic to modern times. We will explore a variety of monuments in different media (painting, sculpture, architecture, books, furniture, etc.) placing them into their historical contexts.


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There will be two main assignments throughout the term:

a research paper (45%)
a 20-minute presentation in class (35%)

The remaining 20% of the final grade would be assessed taking into account attendance and class participation.


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Feb 7           Introduction to the course


Feb 14          Screening of Mel Gibson’s Apocalypto


Feb 21          The Lords of Sipán: Art, war and ritual in the ancient Andes


Feb 28          Maya military pageantry at Bonampak and Cacaxtla


Mar 7            Tenochtitlan: warriors, flowers and ritual


Mar 14          Contrasting views of the Spanish Conquest


Mar 21          Pirates and fortifications of the Caribbean


Mar 27          Spring break – No class


Apr 4            Bolívar, the Independence hero


Apr 11          War and reconciliation in 19th-century painting


Apr 18          The muralists and the Mexican Revolution


Apr 25          The art of the Cuban Revolution


May 2           Presentations


May 9           Presentations


May 16          Presentations



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To access the readings from outside the UD network click here and enter the reading URL in the ‘proxify a real URL’ box
Feb 21
·        Alva, Walter. Royal tombs of Sipán. Los Angeles: Fowler Museum of Cultural History, University of California, 1993, pp. 10-25, 55-141 [Morris Library F3430.1 .M6 A48 1993]
·        ARTstor images: Sipan 

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Feb 28
·        Miller, Mary Ellen. “The court at war,” in: Courtly art of the ancient Maya. [San Francisco]: Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco; New York: Thames & Hudson, 2004, pp. 163-197. [Morris Library F 1435 .M55 2004]
·        ARTstor images: Maya

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Mar 7

·        Carrasco, David. Daily life of the Aztecs. Westport: Greenwood Press, 1998, pp. 127-148, 183-207 [Morris Library F 1219.73 .C355 1998]

·        Pasztory, Esther. Aztec art. New York: H.N. Abrams, 1983, pp. 139-178 [Morris Library F1219.76 .A78 P37 1983]
·        ARTstor images: Aztec


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Mar 14

·        “The siege and fall of Tenochtitlan” in: Schwartz, Stuart B. (ed.) Victors and vanquished: Spanish and Nahua views of the conquest of Mexico (The Bedford series in history and culture). Boston: Bedford/St. Martin's, 2000, pp. 182-213 [Morris Library F 1230 .V53x 2000]

·        Gillespie, Jeanne. Saints and warriors: Tlaxcalan perspectives on the conquest of Tenochtitlan. New Orleans, LA: University Press of the South, 2004, pp. 171-191 [Morris Library F1219.56.L53 G55x 2004]

·        Jackson, Margaret and Rebecca P. Brienen (eds.) Visions of empire: Picturing the Conquest in colonial Mexico. Coral Gables, FL: University of Miami/Jay I. Kislak Foundation, 2003, pp. 39-56 (plates), 57-72 (text)

·        ARTstor images: Conquest


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Mar 21

·        Exquemelin, Alexander O. “Captain Morgan torturing prisoners after the battle of Maracaibo” in: The buccaneers of America. London: Routledge; New York: Dutton, [1924], pp. 154-155 [Morris Library F2161 .E837] Audiovisual version/Interactive version

·        Apestegui Cardenal, Cruz. Pirates of the Caribbean: buccaneers, privateers, freebooters and filibusters, 1493-1720. London: Conway Maritime, 2002, pp. 21, 130-131, 142-143, 151-175. [Morris Library Folio F2161 .A6313x 2002]

·        Segovia Salas, Rodolfo. The fortifications of Cartagena de Indias. Bogotá: Tercer Mundo editors, 1994, pp. 8-23

·        ARTstor images: Pirates


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Apr 4

·        "Simón Bolívar" in: Encyclopedia of World Biography, 2nd ed. 17 Vols. Gale Research, 1998. [Reproduced in: Biography Resource Center. Farmington Hills, Mich.: Thomson Gale. 2007].

·        Langley, Harold D. “Bolivar as Seen by an American Sailor,” The Hispanic American Historical Review, Vol. 36, No. 3. (Aug., 1956), pp. 329-332.

·        Ades, Dawn. “Independence and its heroes” in: Ades, Dawn. Art in Latin America. The Modern Era, 1820-1980. New Haven/London: Yale University Press, 1989, pp. 6-25 [Morris Library  N6502 .A33 1989]

·        ARTstor images: Bolivar


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Apr 11

·        Ades, Dawn. “Academies and history painting” in: Ades, Dawn. Art in Latin America. The Modern Era, 1820-1980. New Haven/London: Yale University Press, 1989, pp. 26-39 [Morris Library  N6502 .A33 1989]

·        Widdifield, Stacie G. “Amnesty, conciliation, and the image of the nation” in: The embodiment of the national in late nineteenth-century Mexican painting. Tucson: University of Arizona Press, c1996. pp. 32-77 [Morris Library ND 254 .W54 1996]

·        ARTstor images: Reconciliation


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Apr 18

·        Ades, Dawn. “The Mexican mural movement” in: Ades, Dawn. Art in Latin America. The Modern Era, 1820-1980. New Haven/London: Yale University Press, 1989, pp. 150-179 [Morris Library N6502 .A33 1989]

·        Craven, David. “The Mexican Revolution (1910-1940)” in: Craven, David. Art and revolution in Latin America, 1910-1990. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2002, pp. 24-73 [Morris Library N6502 .C735 2002]
·        ARTstor images: Mexican

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Apr 25
·        Craven, David. “The Cuban Revolution (1959-1989) in: Craven, David. Art and revolution in Latin America, 1910-1990. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2002, pp. 74-116 [Morris Library N6502 .C735 2002]
·        Mosquera, Gerardo, 1985. “The Social Function of Art in Cuba since the Revolution of 1959 (1985)” in: Craven, David. Art and revolution in Latin America, 1910-1990. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2002, pp. 180-182 [Morris Library N6502 .C735 2002]
·        ARTstor images: Cuban

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Additional bibliography at Morris Library


·        America bride of the Sun. 500 Years Latin America and the Low Countries. Antwerp: Royal Museum of Fine Arts, 1992. Morris Library N6931 .A54x 1991

·        Castedo, Leopoldo. A history of Latin American art and architecture from pre-Columbian times to the present. Translated and edited by Phyllis Freeman. New York, Praeger [1969] Morris Library N6502 .C3213 1969

·        Encyclopedia of Latin American and Caribbean art, edited by Jane Turner. London: Macmillan Reference Limited; New York: Grove's Dictionaries, 1999. Morris Library Reference N 6502 .E53 1999

·        Historia general del arte mexicano, edited by Pedro Rojas. México: Editorial Hermes, 1962. Morris Library N6550 .H5

·        Mexico: splendors of thirty centuries. New York, NY [Boston, Mass.]: The Metropolitan Museum of Art; Little Brown, 1990. Morris Library N6550 .M48 1990


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·        Aztecs. London: Royal Academy of Arts, 2002.

·        Barbier, Jean Paul. A guide to pre-Columbian art. Barcelona: Museu Barbier-Mueller Art Precolombí; Milano: Skira; New York: Distributed in North America and Latin America by Abbeville Pub. Group, c1999. Morris Library E 59 .A7 B35 1999
·        Bauer, Brian S. Ancient Cuzco: heartland of the Inca. Austin: University of Texas Press, 2004. Morris Library F3429 .B385 2004
·        Donnan, Christopher B. Moche portraits from ancient Peru. Austin: University of Texas Press, 2004. Morris Library F3430.1.M6 D67 2004
·        Hassig, Ross. War and society in ancient Mesoamerica. Berkeley/Los Angeles/Oxford: University of California Press, 1992, pp.44-63 [Morris Library F 1219.3 .W37 H37 1992]
·        Headrick, Annabeth. “Butterfly war at Teotihuacan” in: Brown, M. Kathryn and Travis W. Stanton (eds). Ancient Mesoamerican warfare. Walnut Creek: AltaMira Press, 2003. pp. 149-170 [Morris Library F1219.3.M55 A43 2003]

·        Levenson, Jay A., ed. Circa 1492: art in the age of exploration. Washington; New Haven: National Gallery of Art; Yale University Press, 1991. Reserve Room CB367 .C57 1991

·        Kubler, George. The art and architecture of ancient America: the Mexican, Maya, and Andean peoples. Harmondsworth, England; New York: Penguin Books, c1984. Morris Library E59 .A7 K8 1984 
·        Miller, Mary Ellen. Maya art and architecture. London; New York: Thames & Hudson, c1999. Morris Library F 1435.3 .A7 M55x 1999 
·        Miller, Mary Ellen. The art of Mesoamerica: from Olmec to Aztec. New York: Thames & Hudson, c2001. Morris Library  F 1219.3 .A7 M55 2001 
·        Pasztory, Esther. Aztec art. New York: H.N. Abrams, [1983] Morris Library F1219.76 .A78 P37 1983

·        Stone-Miller, Rebecca. Art of the Andes: from Chavín to Inca. London: Thames and Hudson, 1995.

·        The Aztec empire / curated by Felipe Solís. New York, N.Y.: Guggenheim Museum Publications, 2004. Morris Library FOLIO F1219.73 .A97x 2004


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·        Bailey, Gauvin Alexander. The Art of Colonial Latin America. Phaidon Press, 2005

·        Edgerton, Samuel Y. Theaters of conversion: religious architecture and Indian artisans in colonial Mexico. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 2001. Morris Library N 7914 .A1 E34 2001

·        Kubler, George, and Martín Sebastián Soria. Art and architecture in Spain and Portugal and their American dominions, 1500 to 1800. [Harmondsworth, Mddx.]: Penguin Books, 1959. Morris Library N 7104 .K8

·        Pierce, Donna. Painting a new world: Mexican art and life, 1521-1821 / Donna Pierce, Rogelio Ruiz Gomar, Clara Bargellini; with an introduction by Jonathan Brown. Denver: Frederick and Jan Mayer Center for Pre-Columbian and Spanish Colonial Art, Denver Art Museum, 2004. Morris Library ND253 .P54 2004 
·        Sahagún, Bernardino de. The war of conquest: how it was waged here in Mexico: the Aztecs' own story. Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press, c1978. [Morris Library F1230 .S3413 1978]

·        Sebastián, Santiago, et al. Summa Artis. Historia General del Arte. Vol. XXVIII: Arte Iberoamericano desde la colonización a la Independencia. Vol. 1. Madrid: Espasa Calpe, 1985. Morris Library N5300 .S97 1931 v.28

·        Los siglos de oro en los virreinatos de América: 1550-1700. [Madrid]: Sociedad Estatal para la Conmemoración de los Centenarios de Felipe II y Carlos V, c1999. Morris Library N 6502.2 .S53 1999

·        Toussaint, Manuel. Colonial art in Mexico. Translated and edited by Elizabeth Wilder Weismann. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1967. Morris Library N6553 .T6813


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Modern and Contemporary

·        Ades, Dawn. Art in Latin America:  the modern era, 1820-1980. New Haven, Conn.:  Yale University Press, c1989. Morris Library N6502 .A33 1989

·        Baddeley, Oriana, and Valerie Fraser. Drawing the line: art and cultural identity in contemporary Latin America. London; New York: Verso, 1989. Morris Library N6502.5 .B3 1989

·        Barnitz, Jacqueline. Twentieth-century art of Latin America. Austin: University of Texas Press, 2001. Morris Library N 6502.5 .B36 2001

·        Chaplik, Dorothy. Defining Latin American art = Hacia una definición del arte latinoamericano. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland & Co., c2005. Morris Library N6502.57.M63 C48 2005

·        Craven, David. Art and revolution in Latin America, 1910-1990. New Haven: Yale University Press, c2002. Morris Library N6502 .C735 2002

·        Hedrick, Tace. Mestizo modernism: race, nation, and identity in Latin American culture, 1900-1940. New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, c2003. Morris Library NX501.5 .H43 2003

·        Latin American & Caribbean art: MoMA at El Museo. New York: El Museo del Barrio and The Museum of Modern Art; Distributed by D.A.P., 2004. Morris Library N6502.5 .L37x 2004
·        Latin American art in the twentieth century, edited by Edward J. Sullivan. London: Phaidon Press, c1996. Morris Library N 6502.5 .L375 1996 
·        Latin American artists of the twentieth century, edited by Waldo Rasmussen, with Fatima Bercht and Elizabeth Ferrer. New York, N.Y.: Museum of Modern Art: Distributed by Harry N. Abrams, c1993. Morris Library N6502.5 .L375x 1993 
·        Lucie-Smith, Edward. Latin American art of the 20th century. London; New York, N.Y.: Thames and Hudson, c1993. Morris Library N6502.5 .L83x 1993 

·        Readings in Latin American modern art, edited by Patrick Frank. New Haven: Yale University Press, c2004. Morris Library N6502.5 .R43 2004

·        Shipp, Steve. Latin American and Caribbean artists of the modern era: a biographical dictionary of more than 12,700 persons. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland & Co., 2003. Morris Library N6502.4 .S45 2003

·        Traba, Marta. Art of Latin America, 1900-1980. [Washington, D.C.]: Inter-American Development Bank; [Baltimore, MD]: Distributed by the Johns Hopkins University Press, c1994. Morris Library N 6502.5 .T713 1994


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Additional Resources


Additional activity:


Feb 24   Visit to the exhibit: “Under European Eyes” at the Penn Museum, Philadelphia


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Potential Research Topics:


·        Pre-Hispanic representations: Olmec sculpture; war iconography at Tula and Teotihuacan; Maya ball game


·        Colonial representations: War scenes from Guaman Poma de Ayala’s Coronica; images of the Conquest of Mexico in the Florentine Codex, biombos and enconchados; Andrés Sánchez Galque’s Portrait of the mulatos of Esmeraldas; portraits of Moctezuma, Nezahualcoyotl, Tupac Amaru and other native warriors.


·        Epic scenes: 19th-century battles, the Mexican Revolution, the Massacre of Tlatelolco, the Zapatistas uprising, guerrilla warfare, Nicaragua revolution, El Salvador wars


·        Modern heroes: San Martin, Morelos, Hidalgo, Pancho Villa, Emiliano Zapata, Che Guevara, Fidel Castro, Comandante Marco


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Electronic Resources




Britannica Online [Click on ‘Workspace’ and enter ‘ARTH440’ in the name field of ‘Retrieve a saved workspace’]